Letter forms are very much informed by the production methods available at the time. However, there re many different ways to organise and understand type. "Typography is the craft of endowing human language into a visual form."
The latin alphabet is such a strong system that modern typography is able to have many different symbols to connote a single letter form.
One of the things that maintains a typefaces consistency is its standard of spacial awareness. The sketch book page below shows the consideration of x-height, base line, cap height, ascender line and descender line.
For type users the difference between a type face and a font is important:
a font is the physical means used to create a face and a certain point size, a certain line weight and a certain group of glyphs.
Type face- selection of sizes sizes line weights within a distinct design group.
A type family becomes a whole range of different fonts designed together and intended to work together.
The images below look at changing an existing font to something new by utilising knowledge of the anatomy of type. This will for a basis for creating an entire type face.